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英格蘭essay:文化差異如何影響商業實踐

時間:2019-04-29 14:25來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
導讀:本文是一篇英格蘭essay,針對迪堡決定通過合資企業進入印度市場。 使用Geert Hofstede對國際工作場所文化的研究來比較和對比印度和美國的文化。 討論文化差異如何影響商業實踐。 Introd
導讀:本文是一篇英格蘭essay,針對迪堡決定通過合資企業進入印度市場。 使用Geert Hofstede對國際工作場所文化的研究來比較和對比印度和美國的文化。 討論文化差異如何影響商業實踐。
Introduction 介紹
在合資企業中,文化差異必然帶來文化摩擦和文化沖突。文化差異有三個層次。第一層次的文化差異是民族文化差異與社會背景;文化差異的中等水平是企業文化與企業特征的差異;最后一層文化差異是個人文化與人格特征的差異。民族文化差異是形成企業文化差異的主要因素。國際工作場所文化差異既包括民族文化差異,也包括企業文化差異。因此,國際工作場所文化差異不僅會影響合資企業的員工,還會影響合資企業管理的各個環節。在下文中,我將展示印度與單位國家之間合資企業的國際工作場所文化差異。
In the joint venture enterprise, the cultural differences must bring cultural friction and cultural conflict. There are three levels in cultural differences. The first level of cultural differences is national cultural differences with social background; the medium level of cultural differences is corporate culture differences with enterprise features; the last level of cultural differences is differences of individual culture with personality characteristics. The national cultural differences is the main factor that forms the enterprise cultural differences. The international workplace culture differences include both the national cultural difference and the corporate culture differences. Thus, the international workplace culture differences would not only affect the employees of a joint venture, but also affect the each link of management of a joint venture. In the following, I will show the international workplace culturedifferencesof joint ventures between India and Unit States. 
The theory of Geert Hofstede 理論
Hofstede(1991)將文化定義為具有相同教育和生活經歷的群體共享的心理過程。因此,不同的文化環境,經濟,社會和政治因素將受到巨大的文化差異的束縛。由于文化的演變是一個漫長而漸進的過程,工作場所的文化差異不會消失,并且會在一段時間內保持穩定。在20世紀60年代后期,荷蘭學者Geert Hofstede提出了描述文化差異的五個維度。具體而言,五個維度是權力距離,個人主義與集體主義,男性氣質與女性氣質,不確定性規避和長期定向。
Hofstede (1991) defines the cultural as psychological procedures are shared by groups with the same education and life experience. Thus, different cultural environment, economic, social and political factors would be bound to from a great cultural differences. Since the evolution of cultural is a kind of long and gradual process, the cultural difference in workplace would not disappear and would remain stable over a period of time. In the late 1960s, a Dutch scholar, Geert Hofstede, proposed the five dimensions which describe cultural differences. Specifically, the five dimensions are power distance, individualism vs Collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long term orientation. 
The cultures of India and United Sates 印度和美國的文化
Power distance
The power distance refers to the power distance between employee and decision maker, which measure the concentration of power and the authoritarian degree of leaders. Moreover, the power distance also measure the reception on the unequal distribution of power among organizations. In the country with a high level of reception, the social level is distinct and power distance is large. However, in the country with low level of reception, people are equal to each other and the power distance is small. The size of the power distance is more obvious in the enterprise. In the company with larger power distance, the organizational hierarchy is distinct. However, in the company with small power distance, the organization structure is flat. 
According to the dimension theory of Hofstede, there is very bright and strong religious character in Indian cultural. Many kinds of religious are coexisting in India. Moreover, Indian people are deeply convict their regions. Thus, in the enterprise of India, they emphasize the dominance of personal authority. In corporation, there is big gap between managers and their subordinates. In addition, the managers have greater authority. The reception of on the unequal distribution of power among organizations is higher than U.S, which belongs to the cultural of high power distance(Steelcase, 2010).However, in US, people are advocating freedom and equality (Hofstede,1980). Everyone have the right to participate in planning decisions. The relationship between superior and subordinate is harmonious and relaxed. Thus, consciousness of equality is strong and the reception of on the unequal distribution of power among organizations is low, which belongs to the cultural of low power distance. Therefore, the cultural of US is small power distance and the cultural of Indian is large power distance.
Individualism vs Collectivism
The dimension of individualism vs collectivism measures the extent on the feeling of taking care for or being cared for by themselves. In the cultural of individualism, the ties between individuals are loose and they tend to be responsible for themselves. However, in the cultural of collectivism, people would pay much more attention on decision making and the attachment to collective. They are dedicated to help group’s numbers and they are absolutely loyal to the group.  
The United States is a country with the prevailing of individualism, which emphasis on the self-realization of individual value and the competitive spirit of adventure. In the company of US, the individual responsibility on work is clear. The value of employees largely depends on the performance of individual job (Hofstede, 1984). In Indian, there is deep feudal thought in religious culture. Thus, the individual consciousness is weaker than US. However, western culture has governed Indian for many years. Thus, the collectivism consciousness is weaker than China or other Asian countries(Steelcase, 2010). Therefore, the cultural of US is individualism and the cultural of Indian is collectivism.
Masculinity vs. Femininity
Masculinity refers to the pursuit of success, money and material. However, femininity is contrast to masculinity, which refers to care and pay attention to quality of life. Steelcase (2010) investigated that there is no significant different on masculinity vs. femininity between India and U.S. In other words, there is no particularly obvious divide on gender roles of society in both India and U.S. 
Uncertainty Avoidance
Uncertainty avoidance measures the level on feeling threaten for uncertain situation. In the cultural of low uncertainty avoidance, people prefer to take risks, encourage innovations, and confidence in the future. In the cultural of high uncertain avoidance, people prefer to stay stability, believe authority, and would not tolerate deviant ideas or behaviors. In US, enterprises would not pay much more attention on innovate and encourage employees accept ambiguity. Moreover, Americans would more likely to tolerate the uncertainty future and change jobs more frequently (Christie, 2003). However, in Indian, the rules and regulations in company is strict and follows the suggestions of specialist. Employees tend to have stronger feeling of anxiety and stress. Thus, the cultural of US is low uncertainty avoidance and the cultural of Indian is high uncertainty avoidance. 
Long term orientation
Long term orientation refers to the degree to the attention on traditional culture and mainly measure the basic orientation of time. In the cultural of long term orientation, people would pay much more attention on the future values. In the cultural of short term orientation, people would focus on the benefit at present.
In Indian, many kinds of religious are coexisting in India and Indian people are deeply convict their regions.The enterprises of India would prefer to make long term plan on investment. However, in US, people would prefer to focus on the short term results and the returns on the investment in the short term (Malhotra et al., 2005). Thus, the cultural of US is short term orientation and the cultural of Indian is long term orientation. 
Conclusion
In the late 1960s, a Dutch scholar, Geert Hofstede, proposed the five dimensions which describe cultural differences. Specifically, the five dimensions are power distance, individualism vs Collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long term orientation. Based on above discussion, we can draw the following conclusions. 
1. The cultural of US is small power distance and the cultural of Indian is large power distance.
2. The cultural of US is individualism and the cultural of Indian is collectivism.
3. There is no particularly obvious divide on gender roles of society in both India and U.S.
4. The cultural of US is low uncertainty avoidance and the cultural of Indian is high uncertainty avoidance.
5. The cultural of US is short term orientation and the cultural of Indian is long term orientation. 
 
Reference
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. Southern Medical Journal, 13(3), S219–S222.


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