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共享經濟對交通運輸業的潛在影響

時間:2019-08-14 10:42來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
1. Introduction 介紹 如今,經濟發展速度比以前快,創新和技術是商業世界的關鍵驅動力。他們催生了業務的存在,甚至更多他們創造了一個全新的商業模式,使其他原始業務被扼殺。共享經濟是
1. Introduction介紹
如今,經濟發展速度比以前快,創新和技術是商業世界的關鍵驅動力。他們催生了業務的存在,甚至更多他們創造了一個全新的商業模式,使其他原始業務被扼殺。共享經濟是近年來最強大的創新熱潮之一。共享經濟的概念早在30年前就提出了。然而,直到最近幾年,移動互聯網的出現為共享經濟提供了一個高速經濟發展的平臺(LAN,et al.,2017)。共享實體經濟作為一種新的商業模式,出現在人們的視野中,并逐漸開始改變人們的生活,共享經濟的本質是物品使用權的暫時轉移。在互聯網平臺的幫助下,人們可以將多余資源的使用權轉讓給需要的人。它可以使人們在不購買商品的情況下,能夠獲得商品的權利。共享經濟的出現大大提高了社會閑置資源的利用效率,是一種非常有前途的商業模式。這種商業模式的出現也造就了一批新興產業和優秀企業。自行車共享是共享經濟的新興產業之一。由于其在中國的出色表現,在中國引起了公眾的廣泛關注。Mobike是中國最大的自行車共享公司之一。它是一個完全無站自行車共享系統,總部設在中國北京。以世界上最大的自行車租賃共享運營商bicyles的數量來看,2016年12月,上海成為世界上最大的自行車共享城市(Li,et al,2018)。因此,本報告將重點分析共享經濟及其對運輸業的潛在影響,并以Mobikeas為例。
Nowadays, the economy is developing in the faster speed then before, and innovation and technologyare the key drivers in the commercial world. They surge greaton the business existed, or even morethey create a total new business model that make kill the other original business. Sharing economy is one of most powerful innovation blooms in these years. The concept of Sharing economy was put forward as early as 30 years ago. However, until recent years, the emergence of the mobile Internet provides platform with a high-speed economic development for sharing economy (Lan, et al., 2017). The sharing real economy,as a new business model, appears in the vision of people, and gradually starts to change people's lives.The nature of sharing economy is the temporary transfer of the right to the use of the item. With the help of the Internet platform, people could transfer the right of the use of redundant resources to the people who need it. It could make people, in the case of not buying the goods, be able to get the right of the goods. The emergence of sharing economy has greatly improved the utilization efficiency of social idle resources, which is a very promising business model. The emergence of this business model also creates a number of emerging industries and excellent enterprises. The bicycle sharing is one of the emerging industries of sharing economy. It gets great attentions of public in China due to its great performance in China. The Mobike is one of the biggest bicycle sharing companies in China. It is a fully station-less bicycle-sharing system headquartered in Beijing, China. It is, by the number of bicyles, the world's largest shared (for hire) bicycle operator, and in December 2016, made Shanghai the world's largest bike-sharing city (Li, et al, 2018). Therefore, this report will focus on an analysis of sharing economy and its potential impacts on the transportation sector and take Mobikeas example. 

2. The discussion on the impact of sharing economy on transportation industry 論共享經濟對交通運輸業的影響
2.1. An overview of the sharing economy 共享經濟概述
該報告將分析共享經濟的概況,重點分析運輸業中的B2C(企業對客戶)。共享經濟或共享經濟有時被稱為合作經濟或合作消費,對于共享經濟的概念,在導言中作了介紹。介紹了共享經濟的運行模式。根據共享經濟的參與主體,分析了共享經濟的運行模式。共享經濟由資源提供者、資源需求者和第三方經濟共享平臺三個參與者組成。其中,資源提供者是擁有閑置資源的個人或組織,希望從臨時使用未使用資源給他人帶來好處(Puschmann&alt,2016)。資源的需求者是對商品或服務有需求的個人或組織,這些人或組織往往希望盡快滿足這些需求。無論是對于需求方還是供應商,第三方平臺都更值得信賴,安全性更強,這在互聯網時代往往會增長(Hamari,Sj_Klint&Ukkonen,2015)。共享平臺發布經濟供求信息、審核和協調。資源需求者可以根據自己的需求從平臺上最近的資源所有者那里搜索。如果供需雙方有效匹配,可以降低交易成本。
The report will analyze theoverview of the sharing economy, focusing on the B2C(Business to Customer) in the transportation sector. Sharing economy or sharing economy is sometimes called cooperative economy or cooperative consumption.For the concept of Sharing economy, it has been introduced in the introduction. The operating mode of sharing economy is introduced. The operating mode of the sharing economy is analyzed according to the participating subjects of the sharing economy. The sharing economy consists of three participants, which are the provider of resources, the demanders of resources, and the third-party economic sharing platform. Among them, the provider of resources is an individual or organization that has idle resources and hopes to benefit from the temporary use of unused resources to others (Puschmann& Alt, 2016). The demander of resources is the individual or organization that has the need for the goods or services, and these people or organizations often want to meet these requirements as soon as possible. Whether for the demander or the provider, the third-party platform is more trusted, and the security is stronger, which tends to grow in the Internet age (Hamari, Sjöklint&Ukkonen, 2015). Thesharing platform releases economic supply and demand information, reviews and coordinates. The resources demanders can search from nearest resource owners on the platform according to their own requirements. If both sides of supply and demand effective matching, it could reduce transaction costs.
The business model changes brought by the sharing economy are mainly reflected in the following two aspects. Third-party platforms replace traditional enterprises as the main providers of resources. This offer is not directly to provide resources.The third-party platform integrates the society any idle resources, thus providing to consumers.The third-party platform itself need not have any resource (Sundararajan, 2016). The nature of enterprise is the transaction cost reducing.The mobile Internet and Sharing economy development makethe enterprise transaction cost gradually reduce and even lower. The employment relationship is no longer so clear, gradually mutual cooperation between individuals, employers and employment. With the aid of the third-party platform, every consumer also plays a role of businessman at the same time. At the same time, they can enjoy a share of the goods and services.
As introduced before, the Mobike would be taken as an example. The macroenvironmental analysis of Mobike would be made with the PEST analysis. First aspect is the policy environment. At present, China has a not very good policy environment for sharing bicycles. Although there are some supporting policies, the problem is more obvious. On the one hand, the national policy attaches great importance to sharing economy and green travel, which reflects the support attitude towards sharing economy and sharing bicycles. On the other hand, the policy of local policy on the sharing of economic development is dominated by norms and constraints, and there are fewer policies to encourage development. In addition, the legal status and responsibilities of platform enterprises are not clearly defined (Cohen, &Kietzmann, 2014). There are no clear rules on the nature of the platform, industry classification, new labor relations, practitioners and platform tax collection.For the economy. in the important period of China's economic structure transformation, sharing economy because of its important role will become an important part of the national development strategy. Thebicycle sharing as one of the new forms of Shared economy would also benefit from it. Therefore, although China's overall economic environment is general, it is a good development period for the sharing of bicycles.
For the social aspect, China is in an era of Sharing economy, and the government is promoting green travel and national fitness. Bicycle sharing has the character to meet the demand of green travel and people's fitness needs, which is easily accepted by people. The Sharing economic environment has changed people's sense of consumption (Zervas, Proserpio& Byers, 2013). The Sharing economy is fascinating because it is believed to solve the problem of resource waste and to break down barriers to resource flows. Sharing economic platform such as Uber is convenientfor life and work. The success makes people to realize the sharing of economic strength. It can be said that the successful practice of early sharing economy has greatly changed people's consumption pattern and paved the way for the sharing of bicycles (Tedjasaputra& Sari, 2016). In such an environment, sharing bikes as a new sharing economy can be quickly accepted. People's environmental protection and health awareness are rising. Traffic congestion and the last one kilometer become the common fault of the big cities, people urgently need a new way to travel to solve these two problems, and Shared bicycle to become the best way to solve these two problems. 


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