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Literature review:英國媒體專業文獻綜述范文-關于過年送紅包的習俗

時間:2019-04-10 15:09來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
Literature review文獻綜述 近兩年來,紅包作為我國傳統習俗之一,正逐漸走向一種新的出現方式。通常情況下,在一些特殊的節日或某些活動中,如農歷新年、婚禮或葬禮等,紅包就如同它的字面
Literature review文獻綜述
近兩年來,紅包作為我國傳統習俗之一,正逐漸走向一種新的出現方式。通常情況下,在一些特殊的節日或某些活動中,如農歷新年、婚禮或葬禮等,紅包就如同它的字面意思一樣,是以紅包的形式把真實的貨幣從一個發往另一個發往另一個發往另一個發往。自2014年以來,電子紅包(或電子紅包,電子幸運錢)已經呈現給了普通人的生活。
社會學家圖赫曼(1978)在《新聞制作》一書中指出,新聞是世界的窗口,人們利用窗口框架來了解和認識世界。然而,窗框的大小影響著我們觀察世界的視野和習慣。在這種情況下,我們能透過窗框看到什么樣的風景?中國的報紙是如何在網上寄出紅包的?這與中國政府在這方面的立場相比如何?
In recent two years, sending red envelopes, one of the traditional customs in China, is changing to a new way to appear. Normally, red envelopes, just as its literal meaning, is sent the real currency in an red envelope from one to another during some special festivals or in some events, such as Chinese Lunar New Year, wedding or funeral ceremony so on and so forth. Since the year 2014, electronic red envelope (or e-red envelopes, e-lucky money ) has present to ordinary people’s life.
On the book called News Making, sociologist Tuchman (1978) indicates that news is the window of the world and people uses the window frame to know and then recognize world. However, the size of the window frame affects our vision and habits to look at the world. In this case, what kind of sceneries could we see through the window frame? How do Chinese newspapers frame the process of sending red envelope online? How does this compare to the Chinese government position on this practice?
 
Theoretical background理論背景
到目前為止,許多學者對這一理論框架做出了貢獻,如歐文·戈夫曼、圖恩·范·迪克、威廉·甘森等。然而,這一貢獻的理論框架相對較大,學者們經常引用美國社會學家歐文戈夫曼的話。傳播理論框架下的新聞研究(框架理論),源于美國社會學家戈夫曼的思想。然而,戈夫曼的概念框架借鑒了人類學家、心理學家貝特森(Gorp,2009年)。框架概念從人類學到戈夫曼符號互動理論,再到傳播學的研究。
1959年,戈夫曼的社會學著作《日常生活中的自我呈現》在討論個人如何向他人展示自己時出版。他說,引入一個分析框架,個人社會生活中呈現出的各種特征:他們共同構成一個框架,框架涉及到各種動態問題,都有助于將讀者零散的體驗結合在一起,也為研究者和要擴展的邏輯框架。如果對上述觀點的解釋,我們可以看到戈夫曼在三個層面上使用了概念框架:第一,主體(個人);第二,讀者;第三,調查人員。對于個人而言,擴大社會活動必須界定一個側面,這是個人行動的前提。框架是人們定義組織類型的場景。對讀者來說,當框架幫助讀者將體驗碎片化聯系在一起時,實際上就是引導讀者(受眾)轉換為重要的社會真實憑證主觀思想。對于研究人員來說,框架提供了一個有價值的指導測試。也就是說,該框架將幫助研究人員回顧事件,并提供檢查或指導。此外,框架檢驗了原有的架構,進而實現了對事件的主觀解讀和結構思維,可見框架是一種元信息傳播。
So far, many scholars make the contribute to the theoretical framework , such as Erving Goffman, Tuen van Dijk, William Gamson and so forth. However, the theoretical framework of the contribution is relatively large, scholars often cited to the American sociologist Erving Goffman. Journalism studies in the framework of the theory of propagation (framing theory), derived from the American sociologist Goffman’s thinking. While, Goffman’s conceptual framework is borrowed from the anthropologist, psychologist Bateson (Gorp, 2009). Framework concept has gone from anthropology to Goffman symbolic interaction theory, then to the course of communication studies.
In 1959, Goffman sociology book “The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life ” published when discussing how individuals presented themselves the way to the others. The introduction of a framework for analysis, he said, the various features presented in individuals’ social lives: they form a framework together, the framework involves a variety of dynamic problems, both contribute to have joined together the fragmented experience of readers, and also provides a worthy test of guidance for the researchers and the logical framework to expand. If the interpretation of the above point of views, we could see that Goffman use a conceptual framework on three levels: first, the subjects (individuals); second, the readers; third, the investigators. For individuals, expand activities in society must define a profile, which is the premise of individuals’ action. Framework is that people define tissue type scenario. To the readers, when the frame to help the readers to fragment experience linked together, in fact, is to guide readers (audiences) to be converted to the important social real credentials subjective thoughts. For researchers, framework provides a worthy test of the guidance. That is to say, the framework will help researchers to look back upon the events, and also give inspections or guidance. More over, framework examining the original architecture, then to achieve subjective interpretations and structural thinking to the events, and it could be seen that framework is a metacommunication  information dissemination.
In 1974, Goffman published a book "Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience," to further elaborate the framework of his early thinking: framework is a personal interpretation illustration, and to through such a pattern, everyone could find, understand, recognize and distinguish information or events. Goffman (1974) believes that people's daily activities implied or using a particular interpretation of the framework, will enable chaotic situation had become of some significance. Besides, it is a particular reality that people construct rules followed, or a specific category meaning. Framework is true that people will be converted to subjective social thought important credentials, furthermore, will be provided to receivers who pass from the communicators should to know how to understand the interpretation of the rule symbol. This has been involved in the issue of symbols and information flows.
Frame theory is introduced journalism, after communication, mainly used in news production, media content and media effect three research areas. The theoretical framework is introduced in the field of information dissemination Berkeley sociologist Gitlim. He (Gitlim, 1980) defines the framework concept is to about the existence of what happened and have to choose the significance of these issues, emphasizing performance criteria and when to use it. Framework is a sustained perception, interpretation and presentation box type, also chose to emphasize and stable missing paradigm change. Through this framework, the symbol of handlers routinely organize discourse. This fact has gone beyond the specific news, but a pass abstract and general laws have handled.
In the 1980s, the theoretical framework of the ascendant, some scholars call it in the relationship between the media and public opinion research new paradigm, so that scholars started to discussing. American scholar Gamson is one of the most important theoretical framework researchers, divided frame into two categories: one means boundary, such as the role of the camera lens, the lens is important to be accessible , and also excluded unimportant, so that like a picture frame effect; another one refers to the interpretation of a social phenomenon structure, namely as explained, paraphrased or comments to the outside world (Gamson, 1992) . The former represents the range of coverage, the latter is the sense of the structure of the display. Some scholars believe that boundary and structure, one as internal aspect, for the purposes of human knowledge structures; another one as external aspect, for the purpose of exchanging information and having interaction. The former for the latter set approximate boundaries, which in turn lead the scene how to choose the former. In addition, Gamson (1992) also proposed that a mature framework analysis should include three parts: first, focusing on the production process; second, examining the text; the third is in the negotiation of meaning between the a complex interactive audience and the initiative text.
Another communication scholars Entman (1993) is that the framework includes a selection and highlights. That is to see, frame conduct the selection process in the report and to highlight certain aspects of social reality in particular. Entman's selection and highlights, compare with the boundary of Gamson, seems describing the content of the same area.
Chinese scholar Pan Zhongdang believes that Goffman's frame analysis is a social reality about people in the construction process of how to contact the research area, including the following few points: first, social reality is constructed with the people through social action and interaction. Structural analysis is the analysis about how people construct social reality, which means a part of the real life is selected and interpretation, and then will be placed in a particular system; second, the construction of social reality is the need to establish common life scenes through contacting interaction occurs, and to achieve social realities of inter-subjectivity in this process, which is constituted subjective externalities from internalities. Structural analysis examined how people follow some specific rules of discourse or narrative construction commencement communicative action, so that to achieve concrete action scenes in the definition of the scenario; third, it happens in the real political and economic scene. This construction of reality discourse or narrative actions performances that discussed the activities or have some debates. Structural analysis must examine the process of struggle, and launched simultaneously in the normative and experiential levels; fourth, discourse debates occurred in the public domain, namely that the process of structure, is a core component of a democratic society which people live in public life. Structural analysis is to examine how people carry out the public life, at the same time, it is an important analysis tool which appears in the field of studying and discussing democracy with broad deliberative political communication. Thus, it can be seen that Pan is based on the basic idea of social constructivism and the perspective of political economy, combined with modern social and public life, discussed the concept of democracy and studied structure analysis, so that thinks that the structure is the process of which the social interaction of people get through the discourse, the formation and the exchange of knowledge of the phenomenon and the construction of a shared discursive environment, so that the public life to be started.


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