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亞齊災后重建的經驗教訓

時間:2016-03-12 17:10來源:www.nzbtu.tw 作者:留學生作業 點擊:
摘要:本文主要講述了BRR的建立即為一個單一的政府機構負責監督復興計劃的實現,提供了必要的協調機制大量的人道主義機構,抵達受災地區。

亞齊災后重建的經驗教訓
Lessons Learned from Aceh Post-disaster Recovery

通過單獨的政府機構協調

協調被廣泛認定為災后重建的實質性問題。印尼政府的反應即在亞齊的創建。BRR的建立即為一個單一的政府機構負責監督復興計劃的實現,提供了必要的協調機制大量的人道主義機構,抵達受災地區。作為中央政府的一個擴展和一個單獨的政府機構,即可以立即提供必要的權威非政府捐助者和政府實施機構開始他們的計劃,并幫助他們優先考慮他們的程序,以確保有效的復蘇計劃和測序有有限的重復和沒有,盡可能出現一個缺口。

BRR的經驗在協調很多國際援助提供者,涌向亞齊支持救災和重建工作提供了一個模式,可能影響聯合國組織的救災。現在已經開發了一個集群的系統組織援助機構和其他非政府組織的救災工作(da Silva, 2009).

短期和長期的重建

面臨的困境之一機構工作,在一場災難之后如何結合行動旨在克服迫在眉睫的問題(如缺乏住所)用行動支持長期發展規劃目標(如提供足夠的住房在適當的位置)。最近的一份報告在亞齊的經驗教訓(da Silva,2009)報告說,從英國慈善資金幫助建造了一些14000新房,但這些之后必須改造,甚至推倒重建。房屋的設計的關鍵因素(和學校和其他建筑)在亞齊省是一個地區的地震危險性高。而慈善機構和其他非政府組織往往在災后救援的前沿,在當地條件他們需要尋求專家建議。


通過單獨的政府機構協調——Coordinating through a Single-government Agency


Coordination is widely identified as a substantial problem with post-disaster reconstruction. The Indonesian government's response in Aceh was the creation of BRR. The establishment of BRR as a single government agency responsible for overseeing the implementation of the recovery program provided the necessary mechanisms for coordinating the large number of humanitarian agencies that arrived in the affected regions. As an extension of the central government and a single-government agency, BRR could immediately provide the necessary authority for non-government donors and government implementing agencies to commence their programs, and to assist them prioritizing their programs to ensure effective recovery planning and sequencing with limited duplication and without, as far as possible, any gaps emerging.

BRR's experience in coordinating the many international aid providers that flocked to Aceh to support the relief and reconstruction effort provided a pattern that may have influenced the United Nations in its organization of disaster relief. It has now developed a 'cluster' system to organize aid agencies' and other NGOs' relief efforts (da Silva, 2009).


短期和長期的重建——Short-term and Long-term Reconstruction


One of the dilemmas that faces agencies working in the aftermath of a disaster is how to combine actions aimed at overcoming immediate problems (such as lack of shelter) with actions that support longer-term development planning goals (such as providing adequate housing in appropriate locations). A recent report on lessons learned from Aceh (da Silva, 2009) reports that charity funding from Britain helped build some 14,000 new homes but that many of these later had to be retrofitted or even knocked down and rebuilt. A key factor in the design of houses (and school and other buildings) in Aceh is that it is an area of high seismic risk. Whilst charities and other non-government organizations are often at the forefront of post-disaster relief, they need to seek expert advice on local conditions. Similarly, government reconstruction efforts should marry short-term relief with appropriate long-term planning goals, for example through the construction and location of housing.

Developing action plans for long term recovery is needed for the Aceh government. This means that there should be developed a recovery and rehabilitation policy for local government, including expertise requirements for large scale construction and realistic timeframes. Action plans can be used as the basis for deciding on resource coordination responsibilities in the crisis, including data capture and analysis, Global Information Systems and other informational management technologies. Local government also needs to conduct a review of all tsunami evaluations and lessons learned and synthesis key elements from all stakeholders. Evaluations need to be followed-up by action plans and then ensure that follow up action plans are implemented so that short-term and long-term are considered together.


權力分散——Decentralized Authority


The literature on post-disaster reconstruction emphasizes the importance of involvement of local communities in decision-making and by implication the decentralization of decision-making to local levels. BRR set the example as the first Central Government agency to be based outside Jakarta. This non-Jakarta-centric approach allowed the agency to better respond to changing needs. Further, as vast areas were affected by the tsunami, BRR Regional Offices were established to oversee execution of projects right where they are being carried out. These regional offices ensured that projects followed the existing standards and regulations and involved community participation and the local government.

BRR has encouraged its implementing partners to similarly transfer decision making in project planning and execution to its team in the field. For instance, the decision of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to shift its command post from Manila to the earthquake and Tsunami emergency Program in Aceh resulted in less bottlenecks and a significant improvement in the implementation process (Subekti, 2008).

However, there were some situations where the wider issues of public administration (or governance) overlap with the issues that arise from decentralization. In Banda Aceh, because of confusion and lack of transparency over key policy issues, such as the location and status of the coastal buffer zone, there was some debilitation of both the relief and recovery phases. This is a clear case of need for government to have clear mechanisms which resonate with the principles of good governance.


監管改革——Regulatory Reform


Within a setting where government reform remains a work-in-progress and the nation is struck by a series of unprecedented natural disasters, it is inevitable that certain rules and regulations will need to be modified. The government was aware of this and, by establishing BRR, it minimized the potential disunity associated with side-stepping business-as-usual. Having the need, the mandate and the necessary political will, BRR institutionalized a number of regulatory reforms - reforms which not only expedited the recovery program, but also contributed to the national government's on-going reform program, especially with respect to disaster management.

Such reform, while essential to the recovery program and welcomed by implementing partners, needs to be carefully conceived, broadly considered, and implemented within models of best practices. There is a greater risk implementing regulatory reform within a post-disaster situation because of the way that short-term and long-term needs can become entangled (Subekti, 2008). Clearly the need to keep long-term impacts in mind when undertaking short-term actions in a recovery or reconstruction program applies to a number of government and non-government agencies and to many fields of endeavour. The impact on physical outputs such as housing has already been identified but it can be seen to apply equally to public policy actions, such as regulatory reform.


未來減少災害風險應該重建過程的一部分—— Future Disaster Risk Reduction should be Integral to the Reconstruction Process


There are two aspects to this, both of which became apparent in Banda Aceh. The first is that reconstruction should be seen as only one stage of the disaster management cycle, and that there are stages that should be completed before any disaster occurs. In the case of Banda Aceh there had been no pre-disaster planning. This reduced the effectiveness of post-disaster reconstruction efforts. Given that Banda Aceh is in a seismically active area and is subject to other natural hazards, such as flooding and storm damage, then local and national governments should be developing plans to reduce the impact of future disasters. The second aspect is that planning for future disaster risk reduction should be an integral component of the actual reconstruction process, at least partially because the impact of a disaster provides a window of opportunity when communities, governments and non-government organizations are acutely conscious of what the damage a disaster can entail. This requires a strategy which capitalizes on the availability of funds and political will, and includes social and financial measures relating to awareness raising and preparedness. The opportunity to rationalize urban plans to include evacuation routes and strategically address services provision and the location of critical infrastructure should be considered rather than rebuilding urban communities by repeating the pattern of organic growth and siting public buildings as before (da Silva, 2009).

A sometimes neglected aspect of future disaster planning is maintaining community disaster awareness. Simeulu Island, in Aceh province, is a good example of the way that local knowledge and community awareness can help mitigate the impact of disasters. When the tsunami was coming people moved very quickly to higher ground. Very few people were killed by the tsunami on Simeulu Island. This was because knowledge and experience of past tsunamis had been passed from generation to generation.



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