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最后的晚餐-Analysis of “The Last Supper”

時間:2016-04-13 11:25來源:www.nzbtu.tw 作者:留學生作業 點擊:
宗教的含義首先是通過這幅畫的對稱布局體現。作為一個橫幅畫,有一種天然的穩定性和莊重的感覺這幅畫的。
1.Introduction介紹
 
本文第一部分分析了這部名著的主題,《最后的晚餐》中描繪了一個室內餐廳,12個弟子和基督在一個長方形的桌子后排成一排。耶穌坐在繪畫中,弟子分為在耶穌兩側三組,他們表現出不同的動態和表情后聽到耶穌說:“你要背叛我”,騷動出現的表,只有耶穌似乎從他的表情平靜,形成強烈的對比與他的門徒。藝術家仔細地思考了每個人的行為、情感和精神行為,構成人物、身體結構、敏感的關系,這些元素都達到了前所未有的生動和諧。此外,對這幅作品的構圖和色彩,本文也進行了詳細分析。藝術家明智地使用了一條在墻上的兩側的餐桌和線條,把它們集中到一個點上,然后明亮的窗口作為一個箔的頭,因此,在這幅畫里,上帝有一個突出的主導地位。雖然畫家在這幅畫中描繪了許多文字,但這幅畫的變化卻沒有一點混亂,這一切都是完美的。通過對這部作品的分析與深入研究,本文對這幅畫的深層意義和價值進行了深入的研究,反映了經濟和政治制度在舊的經濟和政治體系中被淘汰的意識形態和意識形態,也反映了舊的經濟和政治制度中的意識形態,也體現了新的社會因素,并建立了新的經濟和政治服務體系。The first part of this paper analysis the subject of this masterpiece, "The Last Supper" depicts an indoor restaurant, 12 disciples and Jesus lined up after a rectangular table. Jesus sitting in the middle of the painting, disciples are divided into three groups in both sides of Jesus, they showed different dynamics and expressions after heard Jesus said "one of you shall betray me", a commotion appearing by the table, only Jesus seems serene and calm from his expression, formed strong contrast compare to his disciples. The artist carefully thought about everyone of character’s action, emotion and mental action, the composition characters, physical structure, sensitive relations, all these elements of this painting have reached an unprecedented vivid harmony. In addition, to the composition and color of this masterpiece, this paper also carried 3 
out a detailed analysis. Artist wisely used the perspective lines of dining table and lines of on both sides of the wall, concentrated them to one spot upon Jesus's head, then bright windows served as a foil to the head of Jesus, therefore, Jesus has a prominent dominant position in this painting. Although the artist depicted many characters in this picture, there is no confusing at all, all the changes in this painting had been unified perfectly. Through analysis and deep study of this masterpiece, this paper leading to the deeper meaning and value of this painting, it reflects the economic and political system witch dominate the society and serving the dominant "ideology", the remain of Ideologies which has been eliminated in the old economy and political system, also reflects the new ideology of existing society, growing with a new social factors, and the establishment of a new economic and political services system. 
 
2. The subject, style and form of expression of “The Last Supper” 主題,風格和“最后的晚餐”的表現形式
 
DaVinci depicted the most important thing in Christianity in the painting of“The Last Supper” -Jesus knew that he has already been betrayed by his disciples, when he and his disciples sit together for the last supper, twelve disciples, each one of them showed different reactions. The greatest success of this painting's is the artist successfully showed different psychological behavior of each character, the inside voice of these thirteen characters has been lively performed by the great art master in this art piece. 4 
Leonardo da Vinci not only searched for innovation in drawing techniques, but also showed creativity in the layout of the picture. All along, in other art works with same subject, the most common layout is Jesus' disciples sitting in a row, whole Jesus sitting alone at another side. On the contrary, Da Vinci allowed the Twelve Apostles sit on both side of Jesus, Jesus sitting in the middle by himself, with his face shining behind bright windows, raised the sense of solemn. The sharp contrast in the background is leading audiences to focus all attention to Jesus, also created an unsettling atmosphere among those disciples of Jesus, everyone's facial expressions, eye contacts, movements are different, especially panic Judah, whose elbow knocked over the salt shaker, body lean back, with the panic and anxiety on his face. Figures in the painting from left to right are Bartholomeus, Jacobus Alphei, Andreas, JJudas Scariotes, Peter Simon Petrus, Iohannes Zebedaei, Jesus, Thomas, Iacobus Zebedaei, Philippus, Matthew Mattheus, Simon Cananeus, St. Jude Thaddeus. In Mercy Convent of Santa Maria in Milan, the rectangular restaurant lobby, where monks used as dinner, this art piece took the place of a whole wall in there. There is no reason for audiences not to imagine about what the scene would look like when the murals show up, in the long dining table monks gathered together and sitting alongside with Jesus and his apostles on the table. The religious stories never became so close to real life, exhibited in front of people so lively and vividly before Da Vinci 5 
created “The Last Supper”. It seems to be outside of the hall, there has been added to another hall, where “Last Supper” is truly happening when viewers standing in front of it, people are able to feel and touch that legend. How bright is the light, falling on the table, how strongly it to enhanced the three-dimensional effects of characters and delivered a solid feeling of the painting. At first, monks probably deeply shocked by the realistic feeling to this art piece, before they noticed that all the details are actually depicted so real, from dishes on the tablecloth to those drapery folds. Like always, ordinary people usually evaluate art works based on the degree of realism of a certain art piece. However, that is only the first sense, in full appreciation of this extraordinary master piece, after the surprise brought by the realistic feeling of this painting, attention of audiences might turn to the creative method which been used by Da Vinci in order to state the story from “Bible”, compare to other art works with the same subject, Da Vinci used a whole new expression method, and there are nothing similar with other works in the same subject. In the painting of "The Last Supper", Jesus with calm and peacefully expression, the saints with an interesting gesture, and the unidentified woman, all three characters appeared in the same painting, might seems contradictory in a certain degree. Of course, first of all these characters and seems fairly appropriate as a whole, overall, the structure and composition of this painting are well arranged, the analyzes about 6 
these undefined elements can be detached to the work, as appreciation for a separate individual outside of the art work. Also worth to mention that this kind of desire and pursuit to a god or a noble human, and all sorts of doubts about God, as well as the humanization of this god, are closely related to Renaissance. Majority of elites emerged during Renaissance period, were passionate about human spirit, human liberation, at the same time, they believed in the existence of Gods, Da Vinci as a representative art master in this period, it is understandable for him to wonder repeatedly in this conflict, and gradually progress. The success of “The Last Supper” is closely related to artist’s pursuit of humanist thought, advanced painting techniques and methods, and the realism creation style. Different characters in this painting implied the kindness and evil of human society. By contrast between different characters, all characters are intrinsically linked and echoed, formed a unified, emotional whole. This can be considered as the most successful factor of Da Vinci’s psychological depicting of characters, which is a perfect example of pursue unity within diversity situation. 
 
3. Composition and the use of color 成分和色彩的運用
 
3.1. Compositional features of “The Last Supper” If majority of contemporary people are not as interested in religious legend as the old days, people can still enjoy the beautiful painting formed by the figure of characters. Composition of the picture seems to have a natural relaxed feeling, with the sense of balance and harmony, which is one of Gothic painting’s nature, also is 7 
the effect Rogier Van and artists like Botticelli tried very hard to reinstated by their own different creation methods. However, Leonardo was found that sacrifice the correctness and accuracy of observation sketch would not lead to the achievement of pleasing contour. In “The Last Supper”, lines been used in characters are mellow and powerful, lines been used in wall and backgrounds are certain and straight. Curved and straight lines combined in the same painting, supporting each other in the mean while of making a strong contrast, grow the resonance between lines and visualization. If artists did not take the beauty of composition in to consideration, standing in front of this masterpiece, we would suddenly feel in the face of the certain corner of the real world, as real as we have seen in any pieces of Masaccio or Donatello's art, so striking. The artist used the principle of balanced symmetrical in the composition of “The Last Supper”, Jesus as the main character, been arranged at the center position of the picture, his twelve disciples were seating on both of his left and right sides, this compositional arrangement formed the symmetrical visual effects by divided character layout into two sides. Symmetry of left and right side decorative wall, background wall and to-ceiling windows, and the symmetrical structure of the ceiling, naturally leading the focus of the picture to central position-where Jesus is, this composition method brought a sense of calm and stable to viewers, which is the first visual experience will be brought to the viewer by symmetrical compositions. 8 


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