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描述市場分析的相關理論-新西蘭留學生作業代寫

時間:2017-03-23 09:34來源:www.nzbtu.tw 作者:cinq 點擊:
本文是新西蘭留學生作業范文,主要內容是描述市場分析的相關理論,識別消費者的需求和需求,并預測他們將來的愿望。
管理過程,分類,預期,并提供客戶需求的效率和利潤通常被稱為營銷。任何企業成功的關鍵僅僅取決于它的營銷。完整的營銷傘涵蓋廣告,促銷和銷售和公共關系。沒有任何普遍接受的營銷定義,因為它是一個復雜的過程,是非常不同的從一個組織到另一個。但最廣泛使用和接受的定義,特許營銷定義市場營銷協會是一個過程,一個產品或服務,并提出可能的客戶群。您可能有最好的產品和服務,但沒有營銷,你的業務將如何蓬勃發展,并提供給客戶和如何可能消費者了解有關的產品和服務。銷售將崩潰,然后公司將被關閉。它通常包括識別消費者的需求和需求,并預測他們將來的愿望。它旨在滿足客戶,并代表價值的錢。質量、價格和可用性是評估貨幣價值的必要因素。
 
ABSTRACT 摘要
 
The management procedure which classifies, anticipates, and supplies client requirement efficiently and profitably is usually known as marketing. The key to the success in any business depends solely on its marketing. The complete marketing umbrella covers advertising, promotion and sales and public relations. There aren’t any universally accepted marketing definition as it is a complex process and is very different from one organization to another. But the most widely used and accepted definition by the Chartered Institute of Marketing which defines Marketing is a process by which a product or service is presented and sponsored to possible clienteles. You may have the best of products and services but without marketing, how will your business flourish and deliver those to the clientele and how would the probable consumers get to know about the products and services. Sales would crash and then companies would have been closed. It usually involves identifying the wants and needs of the consumer and predicting what they would desire in the future. It seeks to satisfy customer and should represent value for money. Quality, price and availability are some of the essential factors to assess value for money.
 
Marketing mix is a series of convenient headings of decision to be made by marketing managers in eliciting a profitable consumer response. It is a combination of elements that is required to successfully market any product. It is not a philosophy or model of organization that has been imitated from scientific analysis, but a theoretical agenda which highlights the principal decisions that marketing managers make in constituting their contributions to suit customers’ needs. The tools can be used to develop both long-term strategies and short-term strategic programs.
 
There has been debate about which tools should be included in the marketing mix. The traditional marketing mix has comprised the four fundamentals of Product, Price, Promotion and Place. Additions have been suggested by a number of people that people, process and physical evidence are equally important aspects of marketing planning in service industry. There is overlap between each of these headings. What matters is that marketing managers can identify the actions they can take that will produce a favorable response from the customers. The marketing mix has merely become a convenient framework for analyzing these decisions. A brief synopsis of each of the mix elements is given below.
 
Products: They are the means by which organizations satisfy customer needs. A product can be tangible or in tangible in nature like anything that an organization can offer to the prospective customers which might satisfy needs. The marketer can control its element of product mix through its styling, special design features, quality levels, warranties, after-sales services, and the brand image or options in packaging etc.
 
Price: Pricing can be a critical element of most companies’ marketing mix, as it determines the revenue to be generated. By contrast, the other mix elements are concerned essentially with items of expenditure. It is so critical that if the market price is way too high then the company may not achieve their targeted sales. And on the other hand if it is set too low, then the targeted volume sales may be achieved but they wonts earn sufficient profits. Hence, price is a very critical subject in marketing mix.
 
Place: Decisions concerning place really comprise two related areas of decisions. Companies usually make their goods and services in place that are suitable for production, but customers prefer to buy them where the consumption or/and purchase process is easiest. So hence the place related decisions involve how a company would determine that whether if they would want their customers to have easy access to their goods and services.
 
Promotion: It usually refers to the strategies that are used to attract customers to an organization’s products. Promotional tools include advertising, personal selling, public relations, sales promotion, sponsorship, and-increasingly-direct marketing methods.
 
Marketing plan would work only with the elements of all the four P’s of marketing. This is mostly because the four P’s are interdependent.
 
Every business owner wants togrow their business but it is often difficult todetermine the best way forward. The Ansoff Matrix also known as the Ansoff product and market growth matrix is a marketing planning tool which usually aids a business in determining its product and market growth. This is usually determined by focusing on whether the products are new or existing and whether the market is new or existing. The four growth options are associated with different sets of problems and opportunities for a company. These relate to the resources required for implementation, and the level of risk associated with each. It follows, therefore, what might be a feasible growth strategy for one organization may not be for another. The characteristics are given below:
 
Market Penetration: This type of strategy focuses growth on the product existing by boosting higher levels of sales to current target customers. In this strategy, there can be further exploitation of the products without necessarily changing the product or the outlook of the product. This will be possible through the use of various promotional methods, by making distribution extensive or different price policies to attract more clients. If it wanted to accelerate growth, it could do this first by seeking to sell more products to its existing customers and second by attracting customers from its competitors.
 
Product Development: As an alternative to selling existing products in new markets, a company may choose to develop new products for its existing markets. Product development can differ from the introduction of a new product in an existing market or it can involve the modification of an existing product. By modifying the product one would probably change its outlook or presentation, increase the products performance or quality. By doing so, it can appeal more to the already existing market.
 
Market Development: It may also be known as Market Extension. In this strategy, the business sells its existing products to new markets. This can be made possible through further market segmentation to aid in identifying a new clientele base. This strategy assumes that the existing markets have been fully exploited thus the need to venture into new markets. There are various approaches to this strategy, which include: New geographical markets, new distribution channels, new product packaging, and different pricing policies. But while the company may be familiar with the production side of the growth plans, it faces risks because it may have poor knowledge of different buyer behavior patterns in the markets it is attempting to enter.
 
Diversification: Here, a company expands by developing new products for new markets. Diversification can take a number of forms but it is the most risky strategy among the others as it involves two unknowns, new products being created and the business does not know the development problems that may occur in the process. There is also the fact that there is a new market being targeted, which will bring the problem of having unknown characteristics. For a business to take a step into diversification, they need to have their facts right regarding what it expects to gain from the strategy and have a clear assessment of the risks involved.
 
Many various companies in the hospitality sector formed the basis of product/market expansion proposed by Ansoff.
 
A perfect example of the Ansoff Matrix is the Coca Cola Company. Their market penetration strategy was for introducing Diet Coke as people of US were fighting obesity and wanted to help them. Since 1982, dieting has been a constant growing trend and living a healthier life in the US. And introducing Diet Coke in such a market was a great hit. It was a very successful product for the Coca Cola Company, selling millions of units per year. Although Coca Cola even constantly kept a track of changing trends and kept adapting to the various aspects of marketing mix to match the customer’s wants and needs. Market Development Strategy was where they present and sell their products in new and vast markets to increase a new range of customers to get more sales. Example: Coca-Cola expanded its Vanilla version in UK market after in the US. It had a successful launch in America, so then Coca Cola decided to launch its new product the Vanilla flavored in Great Britain. Before doing this the company did various taste tests and developed its graphical look of the brand-Diet Coke. They made sure that the aspects of Coca Cola would remain the same but still be differentiating it so that the customers can identify it as an alternative for Coke. The company’s Product Development Strategy was to develop new products and sell them in their existing market. For example: Coca-Cola created new product called Fanta and sell to the present market to increase sales. But then their diversification strategy was where they developed a new product and target them in a new market. This was when Coca-Cola created 1.5 liter bottle to target mostly households. Because according to research done by Coca Cola, a good increasing number of households contained 1-2 people and the smaller versions of 2 liters would sell well.


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